MERE MAGIC MUSIC Paganini Variations and a Fantasy, Set One
MEDIUM MAGIC MUSIC Paganini Variations, Set Two
MAXIMUM MAGIC MUSIC Paganini Variations, Set Three (In Progress)

For Eight Antiphonal Female Voices, SSSSAAAA

by Christopher Fulkerson

Parnaso di Casa Federico Zuccari
Perseus, According to the Ovid METAMORPHOSES, Book IV?
Bernardino Poccetti ("Barbatelli")
Late 16th, Early 17th Centuries

Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz - Max Planck Institute

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For the score of Mere Magic Music:

The score of this seven minute piece is 39 pages long and, being in the composer's fair hand, takes a little longer to download than a digitally created score takes.

And for the score of Medium Magic Music:

The score of this 23-minute piece is 160 pages long and, being in the composer's fair hand, takes a little longer to download than a digitally created score takes.


Around 1989 Elizabeth Appling, founder and then Music Director of the San Francisco Girl's Chorus, where I had by then worked for seven years as Music Theory Director, asked me to write something for her. It was not to be an actual choral piece; it was to be for her new ensemble of soloists drawn from the Concert Chorus, the senior and most skilled group from the five the Girls Chorus then included. This group was eventually called the Virtuose, and consisted of eight solists, basically the section leaders of the Concert Chorus. They had all been my students in the Theory program, in which I had for years taught a competently rigorous version of fixed chromatic solfege and the rudiments of music theory, though there were many times I was able to impart basic concepts of voice leading and composition, as well as some essential music history. I well knew the singing and musicianship skills of these particular eight girls, which we on the faculty could be proud were formidable by any standards. It was understood that their musicianship studies were an important part of what made them such good young musicians. When once, for drama night at Chorus Camp, the girls did a comic send-up of the faculty, their "costume" consisted of holding my Vocal Musicianship book in their laps, to show that they were "faculty."

I had of course for years wanted to write a work for the Girls Chorus, which had been singing from the textbook I wrote for them, VOCAL MUSICIANSHIP, but had not done a work in concert. Naturally the sketches I had made involved a much larger group than the eight soloists of the Virtuose. When Elizabeth asked me for a piece for her section leaders, I searched for interesting texts to set to music, and kept getting sidetracked with my earlier ideas for the larger piece for the entire Concert Chorus. (These sketches still await a project.) The deadline began to approach by which I would have to deliver the score and I still didn't have a clear idea of what I would write. Somewhere along the line I had the idea to do an arrangement and expansion on the Paganini Caprice Variations. Naturally part of the attraction to this idea was that no one had ever written vocal variations to this Caprice, without a doubt the most popular theme among composers for variation sets; as far as I know, my two completed sets are the only such vocal Paganini variations ever written. I tinkered around with the Paganini set and found it worked rather well; and I found that the eight female voices could between them approximate the virtuosity of a violin quite brilliantly. I met the deadline for the commission by writing MERE MAGIC MUSIC, consisting of eight variations resembling to varying degrees those of the original Paganini set, followed by a longer, more freely composed variation that acts as a finale. The score for an antiphonal placement of the soloists, in the following disposition:


                                                8                        5

                                    3                 audience                 1

                                                7                        6


Of course, a more conventional lineup of singers 1 through 8 from left to right will not produce bad results, but there are frequent antiphonal effects in this music, including not just side-to-side and forward-and-back motivic and phrase calling and echoes, but the casting of motives and phrases clockwise and counterclockwise, even going both circular directions simultaneously through each other, and these effects become more sophisticated as the Magic Cycle progresses.

I enjoyed writing Mere Magic Music and Elizabeth's succinct description of its reception by the girls was simply "They love it," always good news to a composer. Certainly, this is unabashed "ear candy." The texts are nonsense scat syllables chosen entirely contextually, mixed in with syllables from the Hebrew Names of God, associated with the Kabbalistic Tree of Life. As I have described in the Program and Notes to the Concert of May 10, 2009, persuant to my work on The Festival I was reading widely in philosophy and religion, and this reading was in all the major religions and their magical and/or mystery traditions as well, so after I looked into the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, which every student of modern literature should at least know about, I began to learn some Kabbalah, which eventually led for me not to mysticism but to a new hobby, that of cryptography. However, the text of the Magic Cycle, though perhaps cryptic sounding, is not coded, but conceived in the manner of scat "take offs" of syllables common to pop and jazz singing and the occasional Kabbalistic terms. Most of the variations are far from slavish transcriptions of the Paganini originals, and one of them made a terrific "laughter" variation, which the girls perform marvelously on the CD MODERNISM FOREVER (where the piece is known by the title I first gave it, Mera Musica Magica). (To those persons who have heard of a Mega Musica Magica, that was a title I did not use, but would make sense for Medium Magic Music.) Since this piece was written for younger musicians, and grew out of a tonal piece, its idiom was perforce pretty conservative, but its psychological profile, and the fact that it is the first of a series of three projected pieces that each increase in the relevance to modernity of their idiom, allows for it to be included among my principal works. It is one of the few sets of variations ever written for voices (I know of only one other, by Samuel Barber, which I have not heard, and last time I checked, could not actually find), and I am pleased that its form resembles that of an instrumental composition more than most pieces for vocal ensembles. To achieve this, I have had to dispense with a conventional text, and write entirely according to the musical idea. Ever since I was in the Conservatory at UOP I have felt that choral music is a quite stultified art, limited as its programs generally are to mere successions of short saccharin songs, in concerts suffering from what I call "string of ditties disease."

MERE MAGIC MUSIC was completed in 1990 and is seven minutes long. Its world premiere was given on an SFGC program entitled "Newer and Newer Music for Trebles 1952-1990" on June 2 in Oakland, and June 3 in San Francisco, California. Later, Elizabeth and the girls did several unedited studio runthroughs of the piece at Hayward State University; I chose one of these recordings for inclusion on my double CD set MODERNISM FOREVER.


Before even completing the commission for the Virtuose, I decided to do something more rigorous for the same ensemble using the same antiphonal possibilites. I wanted to revisit the same material, but write wholly original variations. I also wanted to increase the rigor of the sequence of sections beyond that of most sets of variations, to form a tighter shape, again more redolent of instrumental compositions than the trivial "string of ditties" that so often arises in music for vocal ensemble. I had studied the Bach Goldberg Variations closely, played them many times, and knew well their contrapuntal and metrical designs. I decided that a set of "character pieces" would be interesting, and cast it in the shape of the Major Arcana of the Tarot deck. This seemed to me to develop naturally out of Paganini's notorious reputation as a sorceror of the violin. I was interested in creating these archetypes and found it was possible to choose material according to the place on the Kabbalistic Tree of Life that each Arcanum occupies: each Arcanum links two Sephiroth, and therefore each variation could be crafted of material from more than one musical archetype.

Along with the conventional writings I had been reading, I had glanced through some of the voluminous literature of "channeling" that was then flooding the bookstores. I found one, and only one, intelligently done book of this type, a series of four books called THE RA MATERIAL by Don Elkins, Carla Rueckert, and James Allen McCarty, which they published privately. These books contain what is by far the most thoughtful description of the Major Arcana that I have ever read, in fact the only one of which I know that is worth reading, and I took the titles for the variations from this book. (Later, I learned of channelings by Mrs. WIlliam Butler Yeats and by Aleister Crowley, but I have not yet gotten around to giving them a proper reading. I doubt they will exceed the coherence THE RA MATERIAL.)

A natural conclusion to the second set of variations occurred with the ending of the Fifteenth Variation. I named the piece MEDIUM MAGIC MUSIC, and this will soon be followed by MAXIMUM MAGIC MUSIC. Each of these pieces grows progressively more modern in idiom. MERE MAGIC is pretty much an agreeable trifle that drums up a lot of energy and enthusiam; the magic is more palpable in MEDIUM MAGIC, where slightly more advanced idioms, resembling Richard Strauss or Jazz, among others, are evident; MAXIMUM MAGIC will be pretty much modern throughout, and its seven character study variations will complete the Major Arcana.

The Variations of MEDIUM MAGIC MUSIC are entitled:

Theme: The Choice
Variation I: Great Way of the Spirit
Variation II: Transformation of the Spirit
Variation III: Significator of the Spirit
Variation IV: Experience of the Spirit
Variation V: Catalyst of the Spirit
Variation VI: Potentiator of the Spirit
Variation VII: Matrix of the Spirit
Variation VIII: Great Way of the Body
Variation IX: Transformation of the Body
Variation X: Significator of the Body
Variation XI: Experience of the Body
Variation XII: Catalyst of the Body
Variation XIII: Potentiator of the Body
Variation XIV: Matrix of the Body
Variation XV: Great Way of the Mind

It will be immediately seen that these "Arcana" are not described with their Kabbalistic terms, which appear in the score but are of lesser significance, but with titles that indicate their place in a complete mental, physical, and spiritual system, one that I find more fruitful than any other I have found. I feel there is real psychological merit to these categories, which are not the elusive and muddy mysticism of yore. This work was completed in 1996 and is 23 minutes long. Portions of it were given in 1998 at the concert I called CHRISTOPHER FULKERSON AND HIS FRIENDS. The score is 162 pages long, copied in the composer's fair hand.


The Variations of MAXIMUM MAGIC MUSIC will be:

Variation I: Transformation of the Mind
Variation II: Significator of the Mind
Variation III: Experience of the Mind
Variation IV: Catalyst of the Mind
Variation V: Potentiator of the Mind
Variation VI: Matrix of the Mind

This set will approximate the duration of the first set.


Last Updated 12/24/2014.